Job analysis: what it is, what it is used for, and phases of the process.
A summary of what job analysis is and what it is used for in companies.
or a company to function in the most appropriate way it is necessary to know what they do and how far their workers should be able to go, if there is any lack of training or if competing companies ask for more requirements from their workers.
A correct job analysis allows the human resources department to recruit and select the best candidates for the company, as well as to know what are the competencies, tasks, skills and needs of each position.
In the following we are going to understand what a job analysis iswhat is its importance, what types there are and how to do one.
What is job analysis?
A job analysis consists of an investigation of the job to be offered or a specific position in the company that you want to know in depth and improve.. This type of analysis is intended to know the necessary skills so that whoever is performing it can have a better performance, establishing all the necessary criteria to select the most suitable candidate.
Usually, this type of analysis is the task of the Human Resources departmentThe Human Resources department has, among other functions, the mission of recruiting and selecting the most suitable workers to join the company, as well as making sure that, if necessary, they update their training. Companies do not function properly without people suitable for each of the positions in it, so this department must know what requirements are necessary for each job.
Once the specific job position has been analyzed, it is usual to make a precise description of what it consists of. This makes it easier to establish the requirements that are considered necessary to perform it, in addition to defining the job offer and the profile of the desired candidate. Furthermore, by delimiting and specifying each of the job positions, the company will be able to draw a complete organization chart, finding out what each position contributes to the organization as a whole.
Advantages of this type of analysis
The collection of all the data obtained during the job analysis helps in decision making, in addition to allowing the validation of more useful and efficient methods and techniques for the performance of individual jobs and the company as a whole. Thus, with this type of analysis better decisions can be made in the selection of personnelIn addition to being able to evaluate the performance of workers and determine who should be promoted, retained, demoted or dismissed.
Among the clearest advantages that gives us the job analysis we have.
1. Organizational structure
Through this type of analysis it is possible to to know how the organization's tasks are divided into its most basic units: divisions, sections, departments, departments, divisions, departments, departments, departments, departments, departments, departments and departments.divisions, sections, departments, work units such as workers or work groups...
2. Job structure
As its name suggests, this type of analysis allows us to know what the job itself is like, in particular its structure. It lets us know how jobs should be grouped into jobs and job ranges, as well as to know which jobs are similar in their usefulness and function with respect to the job.It also allows us to know which jobs are similar in their usefulness and function for the company.
3. Degree of authority
By analyzing the job position we can the organizational chart of the company and, in turn, which positions are above other positions.. It allows us to know the degree of authority of each position and its involvement in decision making.
4. Performance criteria
Performance criteria are the reference for determining the hierarchical dependency relationships within the organization, the number and types of posts, the number of employees, and the type of positions.. In other words, it allows us to know to what extent the work of a given position depends on how well another position does it, whether it is above or below it in terms of authority.
5. Employee redundancy
Through job analysis we can detect those jobs that are either doing virtually the same function or are too similar to allow them to continue to exist. This tool allows us to decide allows us to decide whether it is necessary to combine two jobs into one or change their functions to avoid duplication..
Types of job analysis
There are several types of job analysis that can be performed. They are not mutually exclusive; on the contrary, they are all necessary to determine exactly what are the functions, requirements and competencies of each position in the company, although depending on time and resources, it may be decided to perform only one type of analysis. The main ones are the following four:
1. task-based analysis
The task-based job analysis is the oldest and most classical is the oldest and most classical. It basically consists of finding out what tasks workers perform, regardless of what competencies, training and skills they have or should have. This model aims to define and establish the tasks, duties and responsibilities associated with each of the company's positions.
2. Competency-based analysis
Competency analysis focuses on those skills needed to perform the job..
3. Strengths-based analysis
Strengths-based analysis focuses on those actions that workers enjoy the most, or those in which they perform particularly well.. It is about looking for the motivations that have moved workers to choose the position or the desire to perform that position.
4. Personality-based analysis
Although it is certainly a bit more complicated, a job analysis can be done by looking for those personality traits that are best suited for the job. You can also analyze the most dysfunctional traits, i.e., those that are a source of problems for the job in question.that is, those that are a source of problems for the job in question.
Where to extract information
Job analysis is a tool that tries to follow the scientific method. It is based on information sources and techniques that are as objective and reliable as possible to make the analysis a faithful representation of the organizational reality.
Data is extracted from the job itself, such as the tasks performed by the employee, how they are performed and the behaviors associated with their job. But beyond these observations, there are several techniques to extract all the necessary information.
- Interviews and focus groups.
- Observation or self-observation.
- Analysis through documentation, performance evaluation and former job offers.
- Critical incident methodology
Developing a job analysis
In the following we will see how to develop a job analysis and the steps to follow. It is essential that when proceeding with such an analysis, you know which aspects need to be documented, which people in the organization can provide them and how the information will be managed.
1. Establish the tasks
The first part of the process consists of analyzing the tasks performed by the workers. This is the oldest and, at the same time, the most fundamental type of job analysis. It is necessary to know what types of tasks and how they are being performed within the organization in order to conduct a thorough job analysis. Thus, in order to collect information in this step it is necessary to ask the following questions:
- What does the employee do?
- How does he/she do it?
- Why does he/she do it?
- Why does he/she do it?
By trying to answer these questions for each job position, we will be able to draw up a list of the tasks performed in each job. we will be able to draw up a list of the tasks performed in the organization.. For example, if we want to analyze the job of a waiter we can ask these questions with respect to the following two tasks: bringing food and drinks and clearing the table.
In the case of carrying food and drink, the waiter uses a tray to bring these things to the customer who has ordered those foods. The reason for this is that it is in our interest that the customer is satisfied by consuming what he has ordered.
In the case of cleaning the table, the waiter cleans it with a cloth, disinfectant and other cleaning products so that the table is ready to be used by other customers. The reason for this is to avoid non-compliance with the hygiene standards mandated by the Ministry of Health, as well as to avoid complaints from dissatisfied customers.
2. Job responsibilities and functions
Once the tasks to be performed within the organization are known, they are grouped into different job functions. they are grouped into different functions. It may be the case that there are tasks that only fulfill one function, others that are very different from each other but serve the same function, and a task that, in turn, performs different functions within the organization.
Taking the example of the waiter, we could consider that bringing food to customers would be within the function "customer service", while the cleaning task would have as its main function "hygiene of the establishment", although it could also be related to that of customer service.
Once the functions of the tasks performed in the organization have been established, they are organized according to the degree of responsibility within the organization. are organized according to the degree of responsibility within the organization.. They can be classified on a scale in case we can talk about responsibilities much more important than others, however, in many occasions most of the tasks imply a similar degree of responsibility, so they can be equally prioritized.
3. Knowledge and experience
A fundamental aspect during the job analysis is the evaluation of the experience and knowledge required to perform the job. Thus, skills, abilities the skills, abilities and training that are recommended or required to perform the tasks of the job are evaluated..
In many cases this required knowledge is easy to establish. For example, in order to work in a clinic as a physician, a medical degree and, preferably, a postgraduate or master's degree will be required. In other cases, however, the qualifications required for the job are not so clear. For example, working in a supermarket may require a food handling or vocational training degree, although this is not always the case.
During the analysis of the job in order to find out what training is desired Ideally, it is best to go directly to the employees and managers.. They will give their opinion or experience, what qualifications they have, what they have been asked for and what they have seen in previous companies where they have worked. It is very useful to know what is requested by competitor companies to their workers since, in this way, we will avoid that the company loses strength in its field because of the lack of training of its workers.
4. Competencies in job analysis
At this point it is important to perform the job analysis based on the competencies of your employees. Three very useful techniques can be used herewhich can complement each other.
4. 1. Interviewing managers
Managers are a key figure within the organization, since they are the ones who know the job first hand and who who know the job first hand and know what competencies are needed to perform the tasks adequately. to perform the tasks adequately.
4.2. Performance evaluation
The competencies that differentiate a good employee from one who does not perform his or her job well are deduced.
4.3. Critical incidents
With this technique key behaviors in the job position are established, those that determine the success or failure of the organization. of the organization. We find out which behaviors can benefit or harm the company's performance and try to replicate or eradicate them.
5. Be clear about your goals
Regardless of which technique is used, ideally all three, the most important thing is that the following questions are answered:
- What is the difference between a good and a bad employee?
- Why can some employees perform tasks better than others?
- If you were going to hire an employee to perform a task, what would you look for?
- Is anything else necessary to correctly establish competencies?
In any case, it should be noted that each company has its own idea of what are the ideal competencies in its employees depending on the position they occupy, i.e., this is a very subjective step.
This variability in the competencies required is greatly influenced by the organizational culture of the company, which varies greatly from one company to another. In addition, each company has a different client, so the criteria extracted from the job analysis in one company may not be of any use to another.
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