Women`s Health Generic Drugs F.A.Q.
What is premenstrual syndrome?
Premenstrual syndrome, also the syndrome of premenstrual tension, premenstrual disease, cyclic syndrome (PMS) is a complex cyclic symptom complex that occurs in some women in premenstrual days (2-10 days before menstruation) and is characterized by psycho-emotional, vascular and metabolic-endocrine disorders that have a negative effect on the way of life that is familiar to a woman. The symptoms of the disorder vary. A woman who has PMS doesn’t necessary has all of them.
The frequency of premenstrual syndrome substantially depends on the age of the woman: the older a woman gets, the more likely she has the disorder. It ranges from 25 to 90%. At the age of 19 to 29 years, PMS is observed in 20% of women, after 30 years of age, the syndrome occurs in about every second woman. After 40 years of age, the frequency reaches 55%. There have also been cases when the syndrome was observed in girls immediately after the onset of the period. In addition, more often PMS is observed in emotionally labile women with insufficient body weight and intellectual stress. Certain factors, such as childbirth and abortion, stresses, and infectious diseases play a certain role in the manifestation of the symptoms of the cyclic syndrome. Most commonly, PMS is found in women with disorders of the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and cardiovascular system and can be observed both during the ovulatory cycle (a cycle characterized by the release of an egg from the ovary into the body cavity) and during anovulatory (cycle in which there is no release of the egg).
Currently, the mechanisms of the syndrome are not well understood. There are many hypotheses explaining the onset of PMS symptoms, but at the moment there is no clear substantiation of its occurrence and development. Today, scientists are considering several theories of the etiology of premenstrual syndrome:
– The theory of "water intoxication" (water retention due to endocrine disorders);
– Theory of hyperadrenocorticism activity and an increase in aldosterone;
– Theory of psychosomatic disorders.
What are the symptoms of PMS?
The most usual manifestations include:
Psychological symptoms of PMS:
– Anxiety, irritability, tearfulness, feeling of depression. Frequent and mood swings.
– Sleep problems, insomnia, constant nighttime awakenings, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, lethargy and passivity, distraction, and difficulty concentrating.
Physical symptoms of PMS:
– Breast tenderness, an increase in their volume.
– Edema, sometimes quite noticeable.
– Migraine or dizziness.
– Nausea and vomiting.
– Pain in the back and joints.
– Thirst, which is accompanied by frequent urination.
– Gastrointestinal disorders.
– Palpitations, fever.
– The appearance of irritation on the skin.
– Cravings for sweet and salty food.
How is premenstrual syndrome treated?
First of all, it is necessary to diagnose the disorder and exclude other diseases or conditions that can manifest in the same or similar way. For this, you need to go to your physician or gynecologist, do blood tests, and check the organs that suffer the most from the presumable PMS, for instance, do an ultrasound of the breasts and reproductive organs, MRI of the head, and so on.
PMS, in general, doesn’t require treatment but the symptoms are quite unpleasant so the therapeutic measures and recommendations are aimed at their elimination:
– First of all, it is recommended to incorporate physical activity in your daily routine and not only before the expected menstruation but on a regular basis. It is proven that physical activity very positively affects the severity of PMS.
– Secondly, it is recommended to revise your diet and make sure it includes fewer fats, salt, and fast carbs and instead includes a lot of fiber as well as products rich in B vitamins and magnesium.
– Thirdly, stress and tiredness are considered provocative factors for PMS, thus, it is recommended to practice relaxation, i.e. yoga, meditation, psychotherapy, relaxing massage.
Medications for PMS are divided into:
– Herbal formulations with a mild sedative and diuretic effect, they help to cope with nervousness and edema. In mild PMS, they can have a beneficial effect.
– Vitamin-mineral complexes and dietary supplements provide a tonic effect. If the main cause of PMS is a lack of nutrients, then a properly selected vitamin complex can help smooth out the signs of the premenstrual syndrome.
– OTC and prescription sedatives and nootropics (cognitive enhancers) have a very pronounced effect and markedly facilitate the psychological state during PMS, helping to cope with anxiety, insomnia, and bad mood.
– If the symptoms of PMS are severe and the listed methods do not provide the expected effect, hormonal therapy such as Aygestin by Sandoz can be used. But you should keep in mind that these medications can be appointed only by a practicing doctor after you make tests for hormones.
What is infertility?
Infertility is the inability of a couple in child-bearing age to conceive a child during regular sexual life. A couple is considered sterile if a woman does not become pregnant for a year of regular sexual life (have sex at least 2 times a week) without using means and methods of contraception. According to the World Health Organization, around 8% of couples face the problem of infertility during the reproductive period of life.
In humans, there is absolute sterility, predetermined by incurable changes in the sexual apparatus of a man or a woman and others), and relative, the causes of which can be eliminated. Infertility is called primary if pregnancy has never happened, and secondary if earlier a woman had at least one pregnancy with whatever the outcome (birth, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, etc.)
What are the causes of infertility in women?
1) Obstruction or absence of the fallopian tubes in which the egg cell enters after ovulation and in which it occurs with sperm. In the distal parts of the fallopian tubes, the spermatozoon is met and merged with the egg cell, that is, fertilization occurs, resulting in the formation of an embryo. The embryo moves through the tube into the uterus due to contractions of the muscular wall of the tube (peristalsis) and cilia (the epithelium lining the tube from the inside), which "drive" the embryo into the uterus. Obstruction of the fallopian tubes, usually, is the result of the adhesive process, which leads to inflammation of the tubes (salpingitis). It can be the outcome of sterilizing a woman or after surgical elimination of the tube due to ectopic (tubal) pregnancy or purulent process in it.
2) The adhesions process in the small pelvis is the result of surgeries, inflammation, and endometriosis. Adhesions may envelop the ovary or be located between the tube and the ovary, not letting the egg entering the tube. With a combination of tubal and peritoneal factors, they indicate tubal-peritoneal infertility.
3) Hormonal disorders may be due to the pathology of the ovaries (ovaries exhaustion, polycystic ovary syndrome, etc.) and other hormonal and non-hormonal organs (liver, kidney, etc.). Disorders of metabolic processes, mental stress, etc., can lead to endocrine sterility. Whatever the endocrine sterility caused, the breakdown of the ovulation mechanism (lack of ovulation) is always the indicator.
4) Pathology or absence of the uterus, the organ in which the implantation of the embryo occurs and gestation of the fetus. Uterine pathology may be congenital (intrauterine septum, two-horned uterus, doubling of the uterus, etc.) and acquired (removal or scarring in the uterus after surgery, uterine myoma, endometritis, adenomyosis, polyposis, endometrial hyperplasia, etc.).
5) Endometriosis, which is expressed in the growth of the mucous membrane of the uterus (endometrium) outside. Between the foci of endometriosis adhesions occur and cause tubal-peritoneal infertility.
6) Immunological infertility can occur due to the presence of antibodies in a woman to spermatozoa (antisperm antibodies).
7) Chromosomal pathology can lead to sterility of a woman.
8) Psychological infertility can be the result of a woman’s subconscious unwillingness to have a child. It can be the fear of pregnancy and childbirth, or the unwillingness to have a child with a given man, sometimes resistance to changes in appearance that pregnancy may cause, and so on.
How is infertility diagnosed?
Infertility is diagnosed based on the patient’s survey, i.e. a doctor asks about how long a woman tried to conceive and how active her sexual life is. If a couple who has unprotected sex at least twice a week couldn’t conceive for a year, the diagnosis is made and tests to determine the cause of infertility are made.
How is infertility treated?
The treatment method of infertility depends on the established cause of it. For instance, if the problem is in fallopian tubes, it can imply the surgical restoration of the fallopian tubes. Stimulation of ovulation with such medicines as Clomid (Clomiphene) by Cipla, and performing of in vitro fertilization are also quite widespread. But please note that first, you have to undergo a thorough checkup and consult a qualified reproductive specialist before undergoing any treatment.
What are the causes of menstrual cycle disorders?
Violations of the menstrual cycle are not a disease, but only a sign that some kind of malfunction has occurred in the work of the internal genital organs.
Normal menstrual cycle means regular menstruation, i.e. bleeding from the genital tract. They arise every 21-35 days and last 3-7 days.
It is easy to detect a dysfunction: if the menstruation is normal, then everything is fine, if not - the menstrual cycle is broken. The most pronounced form of cycle disorders is amenorrhea, i.e. the total absence of menstruation for more than six months. In addition, too scanty or, on the contrary, too abundant menstruation, as well as their irregularity (very frequent or rare), are considered suspicious. A woman should be alerted by bleeding that lasts only 1-2 days or more than a week.
In the origins of a cycle violation, there are usually defects in the hormonal system. And it is not at all necessary that these defects relate specifically to sex hormones. The hormones of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands and even the pituitary gland (an important part of the brain) can easily be the culprits.
There are several reasons for such hormonal disruptions:
– Constant stress or damage to the nervous system;
– Infectious and non-infectious diseases of the internal genital organs;
– Serious diseases of other internal organs and systems (liver, kidneys, lungs, blood);
– Severe infectious diseases;
– Genetic predisposition;
– Use of certain medications;
– Changing place of living (for instance, from Alaska to Florida);
– Radiation and poisoning;
– Poor nutrition (weight loss and vitamins deficiency or, on the contrary, obesity).
– Sometimes a very serious illness can be behind a minor violation of the menstrual cycle: ectopic pregnancy, benign and malignant tumors of the ovaries or uterus, tuberculosis, brain tumors.
Noticing that menstruation suddenly became unusual, a woman should immediately go to a gynecologist. The sooner the cause of menstrual disorders becomes clear, the better. First of all, the doctor will prescribe a study of the hormonal profile of the patient. It is also necessary to make an ultrasound examination to find out if there are any diseases or injuries of the internal organs. Another necessary study is testing for infections: a normal vaginal smear or a more complex PCR diagnosis. Depending on what the hormone analysis showed, the patient may need to consult an endocrinologist.
How are menstrual disorders treated?
A violated menstrual cycle must be normalized. However, it’s not the cycle violation that is treated but its causes:
– Infectious and inflammatory processes are treated with antibiotics and other anti-inflammatory medications and physiotherapy;
– Hormonal imbalance is treated with the use of synthetic hormones such as Bromocriptine by Serum Pharmaceuticals and others;
– Tumors can require surgical treatment and chemotherapy in case they are malignant;
– If the cause is in the bad immune system and general organism depletion, rational diet, vitamins, and exercising can help.
What is menopause?
Menopause is the last independent menstruation caused by ovarian function: the date is set retrospectively, namely, after 12 months of absence of menstruation.
There is a period of the menopausal transition, the actual menopause, and postmenopause. The early stage of transition to menopause is characterized by an increase in the variability of the duration of menstrual cycles, which is determined by stable differences of 7 days or more when comparing successive cycles. Stable character means a similar picture within 10 cycles from the moment of the first cycle increased in duration. The late stage of transition to menopause is characterized by the lack of menstruation for 60 days or more.
There is natural and artificial menopause. Natural menopause is associated with age-related depletion of the follicle reserve in the ovaries. It usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55, but may be early (40-45 years) or late (at the age of 55 or over). In the case of menopause at the age of 40 years, it is caused by ovarian exhaustion syndrome. Artificial menopause may be caused by surgical removal of the ovaries, radiation or medication.
The termination of the ovarian release of estrogen hormones, the harmonious functioning of organs with estrogen receptors (central nervous system, urinary organs, mammary glands, skin, and bones) is disturbed.
Menopause has the following symptoms:
– Hot flashes are reported by 80% of women. The frequency and intensity are individual. Sleep disturbances and night sweats are also associated with flashes.
– Mood changes, depression.
– Reduction of sexual desire from mild to complete loss of interest in sex.
– Vaginal dryness that interferes with sexual intercourse and often contributes to the accession of the infection.
– Increased urination, bladder infections.
– Reducing the size and flabbiness of the mammary glands.
– Dryness and reduced skin elasticity, the appearance of deep wrinkles, gray hair.
– Osteoporosis, change in posture.
– Nighttime urination.
– Dry eyes.
How to ease symptoms of menopause?
It is believed that the relief of hot flashes can be achieved by a diet with an abundance of liquid, excluding spicy foods and alcohol and soy-enriched products, physical exercise, and maintaining cool room temperature. Menopausal hormone therapy is the most effective treatment of moderate to severe menopausal symptoms and has the greatest benefits in women younger than 60 years or in 10 years postmenopausal. The medications prescribed include Estradiol by German Remedies.
For vaginal dryness, urinary disturbances and frequent infections of the lower urogenital system, estriol preparations are applied topically in the form of creams or suppositories.
How to stop lactation?
Lactation is a natural process that is induced by childbirth but women can have reasons for wanting not to breastfeed. For this, there are medications that suppress lactation such as Dostinex (Cabergoline) by Serum Pharmaceuticals.
What is osteoporosis?
This is a disease of the bone tissue, in which its quantity is significantly reduced. Accordingly, the more severe the disease, the more likely a person who has it is to get injured even with a small load. Osteoporosis is also dangerous because it has no signs. It is commonly found only when a fracture occurs. The disease increases the risk of pathologies and shortens life expectancy.
How is osteoporosis diagnosed?
If you have the symptoms of the disease and are in the risk group, i.e. aged over 50, have family members with the disease, or are a woman in menopause or postmenopause, you should go to a doctor and get checked using:
– General blood test;
– The level of calcium and phosphorus in the serum;
– The level of vitamin D in serum;
– Osteocalcin level.
– Rx examination or bones.
Who can develop osteoporosis?
There are several groups of high risk for disease development, they include:
1. Age (people over 50);
2. Women in the menopausal and postmenopausal period;
3. Body mass index is less than 20 kg / m2 and/or weight is less than 57 kg;
4. The presence of fractures in the past;
5. Family history of proximal hip fracture;
6. Calcium and vitamin D deficiency;
8. Long-term use of glucocorticoids;
9. Alcohol abuse;
10. Low physical activity;
11. Place of residence (large cities with poor environment).
How is osteoporosis treated?
First of all, for people in the risk group it is recommended to follow a healthy diet with a sufficient amount of calcium. Besides, they can take calcium and D3 supplements to ensure that calcium that comes with food is properly metabolized. Besides, it is highly advised to do light physical exercises to enhance the muscle strength and ensure that the bones are protected from fractures. It also helps to metabolize the nutrients coming with food and supplements.
The medications for osteoporosis are divided in three groups:
– Means with a multifaceted effect on the metabolism of bone tissue (for instance, Calcium and Vitamin D);
– Medications that slow down the destruction of the bone tissue (for instance, Estrogens in postmenopausal replacement therapy or Alendronate by Cipla).
– Medications that stimulate bone formation (for instance, Parathyroid hormone. It affects the acceleration of bone remodeling (activation of osteoblasts). In cases of severe osteoporosis (the presence of one or several osteoporotic fractures), the best choice is the combination: first Parathyroid hormone is used to build bone tissue, and then bisphosphonates are used to maintain the level).
Please make sure to consult a specialist and undergo a thorough examination before you start taking any medication for osteoporosis.