Smoking, Treatment, Infomation.
Medical studies show the direct relation of tobacco smoking with such diseases as lung cancer and emphysema, cardiovascular disorders, and other health problems. According to the WHO’s statistic, the cigarettes smoking is responsible for a hundred million deaths during the twentieth century. It is forecasted that in the twentieth-first century this number will go up to one billion.
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How does nicotine cause dependence?
Nicotine is a cholinomimetic agent, that is, it increases the activity of acetylcholine in the central nervous system. In recent studies, it has been shown that nicotine also increases the level of dopamine in the brain, which can be a factor in obtaining pleasure from smoking.
Nicotine is a substance that has a very potent addicting potential. When smoking, most of the nicotine is pyrolyzed, but even the remaining small dose is sufficient to induce somatic and psychological effects, including for the formation of chemical dependence.
The comparative studies on dependence development on various substances showed that nicotine has a greater potential for developing physical dependence than caffeine and marihuana but lower than alcohol, cocaine, and heroin. Besides, it is considered that nicotine more than the listed substances is able to cause psychological dependence even considering that alcohol, the strongest agent of general-somatic action can cause severe forms of mental disorders as a result of cancellation.
The majority of tobacco smokers smoke cigarettes regularly. According to another study conducted in Canada, the persistent dependence on tobacco smoking develops within five months in teenagers. However, the other studies conducted by Joseph DiFranco show that dependency develops much faster. He claims that in 10% of people who suffer from nicotine dependence the symptoms of addiction developed within two days after the first cigarette smoking. In 25-35% the dependency develops within a month. A large-scale study of New Zealand youth showed that in 25% of smokers the symptoms of dependency started to manifest after smoking one to four cigarettes.
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Smoking harm and statistical data
Smoking takes the first place in the preventable death cases. Every year around 4 million of people die from the health complications caused by smoking.
In the developed countries, the life expectancy of smokers on average is thirteen years shorter than of non-smokers.
If the tendency of tobacco smoking that exists today will persist, it is forecasted that in 2030 this addiction will lead to 10 million of deaths yearly. It is estimated that a half of people who smoke today which is around 700 million around the world, will die from health complications caused by smoking.
How smoking affects lungs?
Tobacco smoke damages the respiratory epithelium, conditioning the morning smoker cough, bronchitis and COPD, lung emphysema, and lung cancer. The risk of these conditions development is 10 fold higher in smokers than in non-smokers.
Among men, considering that there is a bigger share of men who smoke, lung cancer takes the first place among the cancer tumors leading to death.
Before the sixties of the twentieth century when women were not as actively smoking as men, their share in the lung cancer statistic was minimal. But in the late ‘60s the numbers had changed: lung cancer rates in women increased dramatically, and in the late 1980s, its share in the structure of cancer mortality exceeded breast cancer, and now, for example, in the US, twice as many women die from lung cancer than from breast cancer.
Tobacco smoke is a potent carcinogen. It not only suppresses the antitumor immunity but also contains substances that can directly damage the DNA of the cells, which leads to their malignancy. Lung cancer develops in 17.2% of male smokers and 11.6% of female smokers. Among non-smokers, these figures are 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively.
In smokers suffering from COPD and smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day, the risk of developing active tuberculosis increases 2-4 times.
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How does smoking affects cardiovascular system?
Tobacco smoking is one of the leading factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular disorders. Smokers have a two-four fold increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke than non-smokers.
Smoking causes the narrowing of arteries and elevates the risk of diseases of peripheral vessels, such as obstruction of large arteries of the hands and feet, which leads to trophic ulcers development up to the development of gangrene.
Smokers also much more frequently develop aneurysm of the abdominal aorta.
How does smoking affects digestive system?
Smoking inhibits the production of saliva, which is the main buffer fluid of the body which counteracts the acid of gastric juice. Smoking can also stimulate the secretion of hydrochloric acid by parietal cells of the stomach and relaxation of the muscles of the lower esophageal sphincter, thus contributing to the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Smoking is a factor contributing to the occurrence of gastritis and significantly increases two fold the likelihood of developing functional dyspepsia by a factor.
The complications of digestive disorders caused by smoking are peptic ulcer of the stomach, esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and pancreatic cancer.
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How does smoking affects reproductive system?
It is experimentally proven that nicotine depressively affects the centers responsible for erection and ejaculation that are situated in the spinal cord, the consequence of which can be a weakening of the erection and premature ejaculation. Besides, the vessels narrowing effect of nicotine also can be a reason for weaker erection.
In women, smoking can cause fetus development defects and inability to get pregnant.
How does smoking affect bones?
In women, especially during the menopause, smoking causes the thinning of bone tissue and the development of osteoporosis which is dangerous with bone fractures.
How does smoking affects teeth and the oral cavity?
It is a known fact that smoking provokes teeth yellowing but that’s not all. It also promotes the development of such conditions as gingivitis and periodontitis, in severe cases contributing to loss of teeth.
How smoking affects the face?
The term “smoker’s face” was first introduced by a scientific magazine in 1985. It is used to characterize the facial features that 48% of current smokers and 8% of people who had been smokers before have. They include pale gray color of the facial skin, and more pronounced wrinkles compared to non-smokers. It is explained by the fact that elastin, a protein responsible for the elasticity and tissue repair, in smokers becomes more dense and fragmented. In addition, smokers have such a complication in surgical facelift as like skin peeling which occurs four times more often in them than in non-smokers, and the risk of skin rejection after plastic surgery is 12.5 times higher.
The effect of nicotine on other cancer types development
Smoking increases the likelihood of other types of malignant tumors than the tumors of lungs. These include malignant tumors of the oral cavity, esophagus, larynx, pancreas, stomach, colon, kidney, bladder, liver, and prostate.
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The effect of smoking on genetics
Smoking causes long-term changes in genes, including those associated with the formation of cancer tumors and diseases of the cardiovascular system.
According to the studies of scientists at the University of Bristol, the grandchildren of women who smoked during pregnancy have 53% higher risk of developing autism.
Methods to quit smoking
Over the decades, scientists have been working on the means to help people overcome this terrible addiction as smoking that slowly kills them. Today, there are a few methods of smoking cessation that are the most frequently used they are:
- Cold turkey smoking cessation implies the abrupt stopping of smoking without preliminary reduction of the cigarettes smoked per day. This is unassisted smoking cessation that is not suitable for everyone as it requires a strong will and can make you suffer from withdrawal symptoms.
-Smoking cessation with nicotine-replacement drugs is based on the replacement of a share of smoked cigarettes with nicotine-containing gums, patches, and so on. Although this method is relatively good for smoking cessation because it suppresses the physiological craving for nicotine and allows to lower the number of smoked cigarettes it doesn’t help to cope with the withdrawal syndrome and psychological factors of the addiction.
- Another smoking cessation method is with the help of medicines that affect the centers of the brain responsible for the addiction development. These medications bind to the receptors responsive to nicotine and do not allow nicotine to cause the release of dopamine which is responsible for the feeling of satisfaction or enjoyment during smoking. To date, such medicines as Chantix (Champix) and Zyban (Bupropion) are considered the most effective ones for smoking cessation. They do not only suppress the urges to smoke but also make smoking less enjoyable which leads to the reduction of a number of smoked cigarettes and eventual smoking cessation.
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- Chantix or as it’s also called Chantix based on Varenicline developed and made by Pfizer is considered the most effective medication for smoking cessation to date. The medication binds to nicotine receptors and prevents nicotine stimulation of them. It doesn’t allow activating the dopamine system which is responsible for the enjoyment of smoking. It lowers the craving for cigarettes and makes it unpleasant to smoke them. It is recommended to continue smoking and set the date of quitting 1-2 weeks after the therapy start on the day when you decide to start taking the pills. The recommended treatment duration is twelve weeks to make secure the results.
- Generic Zyban based on Bupropion made by Sun Pharma is a medication previously used as an antidepressant only and now approved also as a smoking cessation aid. This medication doesn’t replace nicotine but inhibits the noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake and antagonizes nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. This helps to cope with the withdrawal symptoms and a sharp decrease of those brain chemicals in the withdrawal which leads to depression and other side effects of quitting and by suppressing the action of the receptors it also prevents an individual from enjoying a cigarette as before.If you want to buy drugs to stop smoking, there is no better way than ordering them from our online pharmacy. We choose only the best products and strive to set the lowest possible prices for them.